FOOD KING OF MANGO
Fruit King of Mango Historical Story
According to Botanic Gardens, the Anacardiaceae (Amulet) family of mango trees are called Mangifera Indical. The plant is Rasla Kamanga Priyaamu (Sanskrit), Amma (Hindi), Mango (Tamil), Mango (French and English) Also known as Mong-Kiwu (Chinese) .Mihindu Marahath who came to popularize Buddhism in our country was in Mihintale for the sake of questioning the king of the second wise king of the wisdom of King Matha. Today, we can imagine a history up to 307 BC. Today, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, the West Indies and Madagascar have become the commonest fruit. The outbreak of meadows originates from the mango seeds and the seeds are germinated for four weeks Is about. With the advent of Botanical Gardens, grafting of mangoes began to expand drastically after the grafting of another mango tree into mango plantation. The mangrove mango known as Manjiferera Indica belongs to the Anadaedias. Sri Lanka’s most popular fruit, Mango, is unique due to its main flavour and pleasant aroma,
Mango ternary fruit. Mangifera tribe belonging to about 30 species of tropical fruit, Anacardiaceae flowering plant. Although the real origin is unknown, the large range of genetic diversity in Asian regions ranges from 25 to 30 million years old, due to fossil evidence The mango is Philippines, Indonesia, India, Burma, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh and South and South East Asia Many believe that endemic area.
Mango cultivation in South Asia has been in existence for thousands of years. Therefore, there is a special significance in South Asian culture. The national symbol of the Philippines is also manipulated. The Hindu Mesa mango is called “food of the gods” and is used as a ritual of mango leaves for floral decorations, where Hindu anniversaries and religious festivals are held.
Although mango tells us about the taste, the quality and the power that grows in the world. The world of mankind is amazed with the taste of the world. There is a belief that the mother also births from the mango tree. It is also used in various varieties of paper for sorcery and sorcery. Because of the fact that it is possible to have a cup of munia. Mango manure is considered as a fruit. It is now a novelty to plant in front of a mango tree house. As a result, many lightning strikes occur due to rainfall. Many lightning raids can be carried out by killing the tree. But the mango tree was a lightning strike. However, the tree does not get damaged.
Origin of mango is considered to be India & It is commonly of Sri Lanka and it is becoming popular as a commercial crop in the dry zone, as a new fruit, high quality Mangala ever decreases domestic and international demand, mango has a good potential to export as a conservative product (Jam, Cedar, Chutney. Pickle, Oil, juice. Ayurveda Medicine)
The Land area of Sri Lanka is around 27,846. hectares and the total production is 72,692. Metric tons, 18 metric tons are used for export.
The name of this fruit is derived from the Malayalam and Tamil manga. In Portuguese, the word mango is also known as the Portuguese after their Indian exploration
Mango Frits (Margifera Indica), Fresh Nutrition Value per 100 g
Source: USDA National Nutrient data base
|Principle||Nutrient Value||Percentage of RDA|
|Principle||Nutrient Value||Percentage of RDA|
|Pantothenic acid||0.160 mg||1%|
|Pyridoxine (Vit B- 6)||0.134 mg||10%|
|Vitamin C||27.7 mg||46%|
|Vitamin A||756 IU||25.5%|
|Vitamin E||1.12 mg||7.5%|
|Vitamin K||4.2 µg||3.5%|
|Principle||Nutrient Value||Percentage of RDA|
|Principle||Nutrient Value||Percentage of RDA|
Heals many ailments
- Mango contains antioxidant properties, which help prevent cancer. It is especially important for breast cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, and especially for mango. Especially suitable for the body’s internal organs, which protects the integrity of the walls.
- Mango controls the heart rate that contains potassium.
- Mangrove can control the body’s levels of chopstick. It has the ability to cleanse and control the Mast can also reduce cholesterol.
- There is a possibility of preventing the production of fissure and stroke.
- Malik, citric, and tartic Acids 3 contains bonem’s ingredients for bonematic control.
Ayurveda properties of mango
- Bone mangoes, roots, flowers, leaves, bones, and mangoes can be used to make medicine in Ayurveda.
The properties of the mango
- The body is expanding.
- Healthy for heart.
- Feel the skin
- Developing intellect
- Increase our body’s power.
Raw mango properties
- Rage, chests of the stomach.
The properties of mango leaves
- Mango leaves are given for stopping,
- The leaves of mango leave’s to stop hiccups,
Mangifera indica is a huge tree with a crown of about 10 meters, which is 35 to 40 meters high. Sheets cm15 – 35 cm in length. 6 to 16 are wide, simple, overhead, evergreen .The orange-yellow colour occurs when the fruit becomes sick. In the fall, Sylvuto is rapidly changing from dark red to dark green. Flowering , cm2 A 10 to 40-year-old goitre combined cumulus . Each white little flower has a diameter of 1.5 mm. Five to five longitudinal slices / petals. lily of the valley There is a sweet, sweet odor like the flower. After the flowers finish, the fruit occurs between 3 and 6 months.
The mango is an orange . Mature it hangs from a tree down from a long stomach. Cm 10 – 25 long cent. 7 to 12 inches. It can weigh up to 2.5 kg and varieties of fruits vary. The top fruit is yellow, orange and red. The sunset is the most red, and the darkness in the dark is yellow. Although the colour of green is usually not cultivated, it varies with mango varieties . When ripe, the unsweetened product of the fruit produces a mere sweetening smell. It is a single, flat, oblong seed in the centre. According to the variant, the surface may be fibrous or fibrous . Mm Surrounded with a 1/2 thick dunnel, enclosed with a thin interface / lining enclosed with a sheet of paper. 4 – 7 years, min. 3 – 4 width, cm2 There is one single thick, single-skin.
Mango (Mangifera Indica L) is the most important commercially grown fruit crop of the country, it is called the King of Fruits, india has the richest collection of mango cultivars, indian ranks first among world’s mango producing countries accounting for about 50 % of the world’s mango production. The fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide range of adoptability, high nutritive value, richness in variety, delicious taste and excellent flavour,
We can see a number of mangoes at the market. Among them are varieties of mangoes such as Royal Columbia, Coconut Mango, Box Mango, Mee Mango, Beet Mango, Coir Mango, Wild Mano, Gira Mango and Jaffna Mango.
The success of commercial mango orchard is depend, among other things, on the adoption of innovative technology for both production and post-harvest management, salient features of the technological innovations that might be followed are outlined below,
Selection of Location
Establishment of mango orchard is a long – term investment and trees continue to produce fruit for longer years hence its planting requires proper planning which includes careful selection of site, the land which is chosen for mango orchard is near to main road and market, it has proper irrigation facilities and has a good soil and climate suitable for growth and production of mango trees.
Economic size of the project starts from 1 acre which produces sizeable quantity of fruits necessary for regular supply to domestic & foreign market,
Field Preparation and Layout
- Selected field should be deeply ploughed followed by harrowing to root out the perennial weeds and heavy clods,
- This operation provides congenial tilth to young roots for their healthy development
- Proper levelling of land follows this and a gentle slope is provided to facilitate irrigation as well as drainage of excess water during rains,
- The soils which have drainage problems. Should be provided in one direction to facilitate irrigation as well as drainage of younger plants due to water stagnation,
- After the proper field preparation, one should move for layout,
- Proper layout of an orchard is necessary,
- Like selection of site, any mistake committed in beginning cannot be rectified later on,
- Therefore, very careful per – planning is essential before the actual layout in the field,
- The system of layout to be adopted is decided according to needs,
- The main purpose of planning of an orchard is to provide adequate space to the plant for normal development to proper intercultural operation and passage of air and sunlight for the maintenance or orchard sanitation,
- The planning distance depends on various factors of soil, type of plant weather grafted or seedling and variety,
- In poor soils plants make slow growth, so require less space while in heavy soils growth of plants remain dwarf sized,
- Planting distance depends on vigour of the cultivar,
- Before planting of mango orchard, it is essential to reserve some place for plating of wind breaks at the border sides of orchard from which hot and high winds and frost are expected,
Digging and Filling of pits
- The pit size would be 10 X 10 m dimension,
- Before filling the pit, a mixture of well – decomposed FYM (50kg) & superphosphate (100 g) murate of potash (100 gm) and fenvulrate dust (250 g) is prepared and missed with upper as well as lower soil of the pit,
- The mixture of upper soil is filled first followed by lower soil mixture,
- During filling of pits soil is pressed well so that there is no air pocket inside the pit,
- The upper level of pit is kept 15 cm above from the field level,
- After filling, the pits are irrigated to settle down the soil of the pit,
Time of the planting
- Mango planting is done during rainy season (may to June) and spring season (December to January) In Sri Lanka,
Selection of grafts for planting
- Mango grafts of desired cultivar are procured from genuine sources as in the long run the performance of the orchard depends on the quality of the plants plant’s particularly on the pedigree of the tree, their health and vigour, normally, sturdy grafts with smooth union having equal thickness of rootstock and scion give good performance in the field and such type of grafts are preferred over weak one,
- Six months to one-year old grafts having upright scion growth with 3 -4 scion branches are desirable for planting as compared type to scion having too many branches,
- Fertilizers may be applied in two split doses. One half immediately after the harvesting of fruits in may / June and the other half in December, in both young and old orchards followed by irrigation if there are no rains, foliar application of 3% urea in sandy soils is recommended before flowering, well decomposed farm – yard manure may be applied every year, for trench application of fertilizers,400g each of N and k 20 and 200g of p205 per plant should be provided Micro – Nutrients may be applied as per the requirement in the form of foliar sprays,
- The frequency and amount of irrigation to be provided depends on the type of soil. prevailing climatic conditions, rainfall and its distribution and lastly the age of the trees. No irrigation is required during the monsoon months unless there are long spells of drought, irrigation should be given at 50 % field capacity,
Harvest and Post-Harvest Management
- The orchard starts bearing from sixth year onwards and the economic life of a mango tree exceeds 35 years, yield of fruits varies considerably according to the variety, climatic conditions, plant population etc, on an average. The yield ranges from 5 to 9 t/ acre, Grafted plants start bearing early,
- The mature green fruits can be stored at room temperature for about 4 – 10 days depending upon the variety, the harvested fruits are per – cooled to 10 – 120 C and then stored at an appropriate temperature, wooden or cardboard boxes, rectangular in shape and bamboo baskets having capacity to accommodate 5 to 8 kg, of fruit is used for packaging and transportation of mango fruits, the most commonly used containers are ventilated card board boxes of corrugated fibre board (CFB) cartons, size of the box varies to accommodate 5 to 10 kg, of fruits,
- Road transport by trucks is the most popular mode of transport due to easy approach orchards to the market, marketing of the produce is mainly controlled by intermediaries like wholesalers and commission agents,
Grading is mainly based on the size colour and maturity of the fruits, while grading, smaller fruits are separated from the larger ones in order to achieve uniform ripening, immature, overripe, damaged and diseased fruits are discarded in the process of grading the fruits are generally harvested early in the season at a pre – mature stage to capture early market, such fruits are ripened by uniformly dipping in 750 ppm, Ethel ( 1.8ml/1.) in hot water at 52 +- 20 C for 5 Minutes, within 4 – 8 days under ambient conditions, mature fruits are ripened with lower doses of Ethel for uniform colour development
Mangoes account for approximately half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide, india is the largest mango producer, Accounting for about half of the global mango production, entire produce of mango is marketed as fresh fruit and only a limited quantity is given postharvest treatment for export purposes, less than five per cent of the produced mangoes are processed and mango pulp is the main export product both in terms of volume and value,
Distribution is an extremely important phase in marketing of mangos, the fruit after harvest has to pass through several agencies before reaching the consumer, Producers do not generally undertake wholesale distribution of mangoes, as it is a common practice to lease out the orchards to pre – harvest contractors – who take care of watch and ward of the crop till maturity and then dispose of the produce as it suits them, small number of producers have direct dealing with the consumers or sell their produce through the commission agents,
The retail distribution is done by growers, contactors, commission agents and wholesalers, stall – holders, shop – keepers and hawkers in varying degrees, to ensure better returns to the growers, and fruits at cheaper rates to the consumers, formation of fruit grower’s co – operative sale societies deserves encouragement,
Mango price vary a great deal from year to year, depending upon each year’s total production and various other factors like prevailing prices. Demand, transport and marketing facilities, wholesale prices of mangoes also vary considerably, depending upon the supply and demand of particular varieties, particular varieties, periods of availability, weather conditions, transport facilities, variety, quality. etc ordinarily, however, the price are high at the commencement of the season, declining gradually as the supplies increase, later on when the arrivals decrease, they tend to recovery and reach a high level again before the close of the season,
The demand of fresh mango fruits and processed food items in international and domestic market has shown a decent increase, this estimation is creating a necessity of growing more and more mango fruits to cater the growing demand of domestic & international market
- High returns from the crop compared to traditional food crops,
- The soil and climatic situation in the Sri Lankan regions are very suitable for production of mango,
- There are many established nurseries with supplies good quality saplings of mango
- The governments are providing strong support to commercial cultivation of fruits crops through various policies and schemes,
- The mango industry is providing livelihood opportunities to its growers and those involved in its marketing channel,
- With scarcity of agricultural labour and increasing rural road network, more and more commercial oriented farmers are being attracted to go for development of mango orchards,
- Marketing channel for supply from production to the terminal market centres is developing.
- Mango has an establish export market and factories in cooperative sector, this will add income through processing and create additional employment opportunities for the rural people,
- Various cultivars of improved mangoes were developed by research,
- The orchard owner farmers do not give required attention and care in using required inputs and adopting improved cultural practise in their mango orchards, except using some insecticides to protect the fruits from insects, most farmers lack technical knowledge and training in development of commercial mango orchard,
- There is unavailability of expert technical guidance available to the farmers in addressing production related issues which demand immediate attention (like insect damage pests, etc)
- Poor post – harvest management infrastructure, due to the perishable nature of the products it’s important to have enough transportation and good logistics facilities,
- Lack of effective farmer’s organization for initiating collective/ group marketing,
- There is need for developing processing industries as there are higher post-harvest losses in handling and marketing,
- Smaller land holding limiting the scope for adoption of intensive crop production.
- In recent years, insects attack on scope for adoption of intensive crop production,
- Untimely rains and severe winter cause an extensive damage to the crop during its flowering season,